Do not approach munitions
under any circumstances
Country or territory where the image was reported

Location (8)

Year the image is reported to have been taken

Year (11)

Classification groups of key explosive munitions used in conflicts

Munition Category (5)

The impact or effect the munition is intended to have

Functional use (8)

The specific model of munition pictured

Tentative Model (119)


The external organisation that documented the munition

Research Organisation (3)

Colour of the munition pictured

Base Colour (10)

Colour of all, or some, of the markings on the munition

Marking Colour (9)

Language or script of the marking on a munition

Marking Script (8)

Condition of the munition pictured

Condition (6)

Key features defining the operation mechanisms of a projectile

Mechanical Feature (9)

Short metal pins or bolts for holding together two plates or pieces of metal.
Rivet Holes, Screws, Rivets
Whether a munition is guided or unguided

Guidance (2)

Where the munition is launched from and what it targets

Domain (4)

The type of fins visible on the munition

Fins Characteristic (5)

The nominal diameter of a projectile. For most modern munitions, this is expressed in millimetres (e.g. 82 mm mortar projectile), but older artillery gun projectiles may be described in inches.

Calibre (36)

Weight class of the aerial bomb pictured

Weight Class (10)

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Rivet Holes, Screws, Rivets
Short metal pins or bolts for holding together two plates or pieces of metal. Such rivet holes, typically filled with rivets, are found on multiple types of munition.
Analyst Note:
The visible component is part of a Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) guidance kit, an accessory package that is fitted to unguided air-delivered bombs to convert them to precision guided munitions. Specifically, this image shows part of the left strake of the strake kit. Whilst the JDAM kit would not constitute a munition in its own right, this remnant is included here as contextual information strongly suggests it formed part of a complete munition that functioned. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
This image depicts either a 9M27K or 9M27K1 cargo rocket (cluster munition). The 9M27K carries the 9N210 high explosive fragmentation (HE-FRAG) submunition, whilst the 9M27K1 carries the 9N235 HE-FRAG submunition (ARES).
2 Analyst Notes:
This munition is assessed to be one of the Small Diameter Bomb (SDB) I variants (GBU-39 series), rather than one of the SDB II 'StormBreaker' (GBU-53 series) munitions, on the basis of contextual information. 'Small Diameter Bomb' is the manufacturer's terminology, whilst 'GBU-39' is the U.S. Air Force designation (also used by many other operators). (ARES)
Analyst Note:
The various Iranian Qaem-series guided air-delivered bombs can be difficult to differentiate from one another. In this case, the wing (forward fin) assembly distinguishes this Qaem-5 from the visually similar Qaem-1. Note also that the name 'Qaem' has applied by Iran to other, unrelated munitions. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Once fired, four canards will deploy from the forward (ogival) section of these M982 Excalibur guided artillery projectiles. The narrow-shaped ports through which the canards deploy are a good indicator of a guided or extended-range artillery projectile. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Many guided (or otherwise complex) munitions like this one are marked with additional information on individual assemblies or components. This can include information on sub-contractors that produced or integrated specific parts of a munition. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Cargo rockets often use an internal frame to manage the correct carriage and expulsion of submunitions. These internal frames frequently survive largely intact after the munition has functioned, and may be diagnostic in identifying a munition by type, series, or model. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
The Brimstone is a series of British-designed guided missiles that can be launched from air, land, or sea platforms. The United Kingdom first provided Ukraine with the Brimstone I missile in 2022 and exports have continued since, more recently believed to include the Brimstone II model. In Ukraine, Brimstone-series missiles have been exclusively launched from ground-based and sea-based platforms as of May 2024. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
These S-25-O air-to-surface rockets are each loaded into a single-barrelled O-25 rocket launcher (sometimes called a 'launch tube' or 'rocket pod') that is affixed to an aircraft hardpoint. The over-calibre high explosive fragmentation warhead (of 420 mm in diameter) protrudes from the front of the tube. (ARES)