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Country or territory where the image was reported

Location (8)

A large eastern European country invaded by Russia in February 2022
Ukraine
Year the image is reported to have been taken

Year (11)

Classification groups of key explosive munitions used in conflicts

Munition Category (5)

The impact or effect the munition is intended to have

Functional use (7)

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Tentative Model (99)

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The external organisation that documented the munition

Research Organisation (3)

Colour of the munition pictured

Base Colour (10)

Colour of all, or some, of the markings on the munition

Marking Colour (8)

Language or script of the marking on a munition

Marking Script (8)

Condition of the munition pictured

Condition (6)

Key features defining the operation mechanisms of a projectile

Mechanical Feature (9)

Whether a munition is guided or unguided

Guidance (2)

Where the munition is launched from and what it targets

Domain (4)

The type of fins visible on the munition

Fins Characteristic (5)

The nominal diameter of a projectile. For most modern munitions, this is expressed in millimetres (e.g. 82 mm mortar projectile), but older artillery gun projectiles may be described in inches.

Calibre (28)

Weight class of the aerial bomb pictured

Weight Class (8)

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Ukraine
A large eastern European country that faced a full-scale Russian invasion in February 2022. Since then Ukrainian military has fought a major war with Russian forces, with tens of thousands believed to have been killed.

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Ukraine 2022 – 2024

On 24 February 2022, Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine, with forces seeking to capture most major cities – including the capital Kyiv. This marked the largest conflict in Europe since the Second World War, and around a quarter of Ukrainian territory fell under Russian control – though its forces were repelled from Kyiv. […]

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OSMP244
Analyst Note:
The various Iranian Qaem-series guided air-delivered bombs can be difficult to differentiate from one another. In this case, the wing (forward fin) assembly distinguishes this Qaem-5 from the visually similar Qaem-1. Note also that the name 'Qaem' has applied by Iran to other, unrelated munitions. (ARES)
OSMP335
Analyst Note:
Once fired, four canards will deploy from the forward (ogival) section of these M982 Excalibur guided artillery projectiles. The narrow-shaped ports through which the canards deploy are a good indicator of a guided or extended-range artillery projectile. (ARES)
OSMP338
Analyst Note:
Many guided (or otherwise complex) munitions like this one are marked with additional information on individual assemblies or components. This can include information on sub-contractors that produced or integrated specific parts of a munition. (ARES)
OSMP339
Analyst Note:
In this image, a Ukrainian soldier is using an M1155 Enhanced Portable Inductive Artillery Fuze Setter (EPIAFS) to input the target coordinates and set functioning parameters for an M982 Excalibur guided artillery projectile. (ARES)
OSMP439
Analyst Note:
The large fragments in this image are typical of 'natural' fragmentation resulting from the rupturing of a thick-walled munition (in this case, an artillery projectile) by the functioning of its explosive payload. (ARES)
OSMP302
Analyst Note:
Like the more common 9M22S rocket, the 9M28S carries the 9N510 warhead, which dispenses 180 individual incendiary elements composed of a magnesium alloy shell filled with a thermite-like incendiary composition. (ARES)
OSMP313
Analyst Note:
The Brimstone is a series of British-designed guided missiles that can be launched from air, land, or sea platforms. The United Kingdom first provided Ukraine with the Brimstone I missile in 2022 and exports have continued since, more recently believed to include the Brimstone II model. In Ukraine, Brimstone-series missiles have been exclusively launched from ground-based and sea-based platforms as of May 2024. (ARES)
OSMP314
Analyst Note:
122 mm ‘Grad’ rockets can be fired from a variety of launchers and even in improvised ways. The most common is the BM-21 launcher and its later derivatives, but many other portable or vehicle-mounted launchers have been used around the world. Craft-produced examples—ranging from simple rails to more complex designs comparable to factory made launchers—are also common. In some cases, Grad rockets are even fired whilst supported by a crude arrangement of logs, bricks, or rocks. (ARES)
OSMP277
Analyst Note:
This artillery projectile is a non-lethal type designed to carry propaganda leaflets. Externally, it strongly resembles other variants carrying lethal payloads, although this particular model has a distinctive all-red colour. The leaflets are expelled from the base of the munition by the action of a small explosive charge, after a set amount of time has elapsed after firing (determined by the fuze). (ARES)
OSMP286
Analyst Note:
These S-25-O air-to-surface rockets are each loaded into a single-barrelled O-25 rocket launcher (sometimes called a 'launch tube' or 'rocket pod') that is affixed to an aircraft hardpoint. The over-calibre high explosive fragmentation warhead (of 420 mm in diameter) protrudes from the front of the tube. (ARES)
OSMP260
Analyst Note:
As a result of the rapid introduction of new models and variants during ongoing conflicts, sometimes a munition is issued with a provisional designation, or with no designation at all. In other cases, the designation is not yet known to researchers. (ARES)
OSMP272
Analyst Note:
Whilst most mortars are smoothbore guns, some have a rifled bore. These M1101 120 mm mortar projectiles feature a 'pre-rifled' driving band—that is, a driving band with grooves cut at the factory to fit the mortar's rifling. (ARES)
OSMP276
Analyst Note:
Not all munitions have a lethal purpose. This is a type of ‘carrier’ or ‘cargo’ munition designed to carry and dispense a non-lethal payload—in this case, propaganda leaflets. (ARES)
OSMP220
Analyst Note:
This image depicts a Ukrainian-made version of the Soviet-era OF-25 152 mm artillery projectile, the designation of which is not publicly known at this time (May 2024). The yellow base colour was commonly found in batches produced by Ukroboronprom in late 2022. Later batches returned to a grey base colour. (ARES)
OSMP208
Analyst Note:
The OF-NMR is a rocket-assisted mortar projectile, which uses a solid-fuel rocket motor located in the cylindrical portion of the body, below the ogive, to extend its range. Rocket-assisted mortar projectiles are rarely encountered. (ARES)
OSMP216
Analyst Note:
The “+” marking is a weight classification symbol which indicates standard deviation. One “+” sign indicates a deviation from 0.33% to 1.00% of the stated weight. (ARES)
OSMP163
Analyst Note:
Whereas many cartridges are of the 'fixed' type—with the propellant charge contained entirely within the cartridge, and the cartridge case crimped around the projectile—the OF-540 artillery gun projectile is a type of 'semi-fixed' ammunition. A round of semi-fixed ammunition is separated into two groups of components: the projectile and fuze; and the cartridge case, primer, and one or more propellant charges. These two component groups are typically combined at the time of loading the gun, or shortly beforehand. The majority of ammunition fired by artillery systems is either semi-fixed or 'separate loading' (see Glossary). (ARES)
OSMP169
Analyst Note:
The 120 mm 3-Z-2 incendiary mortar projectile contains 6 incendiary elements, four large and two small. These are hollow steel ‘cups’ filled with an incendiary mixture of an unknown type, but understood to be comparable in effect to thermite. (ARES)