Do not approach munitions
under any circumstances
Country or territory where the image was reported

Location (8)

Year the image is reported to have been taken

Year (11)

Classification groups of key explosive munitions used in conflicts

Munition Category (5)

The impact or effect the munition is intended to have

Functional use (7)

The specific model of munition pictured

Tentative Model (99)


The external organisation that documented the munition

Research Organisation (3)

Colour of the munition pictured

Base Colour (10)

Colour of all, or some, of the markings on the munition

Marking Colour (8)

Language or script of the marking on a munition

Marking Script (8)

Condition of the munition pictured

Condition (6)

Key features defining the operation mechanisms of a projectile

Mechanical Feature (9)

Whether a munition is guided or unguided

Guidance (2)

Where the munition is launched from and what it targets

Domain (4)

The type of fins visible on the munition

Fins Characteristic (5)

The nominal diameter of a projectile. For most modern munitions, this is expressed in millimetres (e.g. 82 mm mortar projectile), but older artillery gun projectiles may be described in inches.

Calibre (28)

Weight class of the aerial bomb pictured

Weight Class (8)

295 results
Analyst Note:
The circled remnant is the hardened steel nosecone of the GBU-39, which renders the munition capable of penetrating more than 3 feet (approx. 1 metre) of steel-reinforced concrete. It is one of several components that often survives the detonation of the munition. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
This image depicts either a 9M27K or 9M27K1 cargo rocket (cluster munition). The 9M27K carries the 9N210 high explosive fragmentation (HE-FRAG) submunition, whilst the 9M27K1 carries the 9N235 HE-FRAG submunition (ARES).
2 Analyst Notes:
This munition is assessed to be one of the Small Diameter Bomb (SDB) I variants (GBU-39 series), rather than one of the SDB II 'StormBreaker' (GBU-53 series) munitions, on the basis of contextual information. 'Small Diameter Bomb' is the manufacturer's terminology, whilst 'GBU-39' is the U.S. Air Force designation (also used by many other operators). (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Some artillery projectiles, such as this M150 type, use a hexachloroethane-based composition (HC) to generate smoke for screening or marking purposes. In many armed forces, HC smoke munitions have partially replaced those relying on white phosphorus for similar effects. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
107mm spin-stabilized rockets of this design are often utilized by non-state actors in an indirect fire role. Like the original Chinese models that they are copied from, they do not require more than a simple electric power source and a rudimentary launch platform to achieve an acceptable level of accuracy. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
The image is of "a high-velocity shell fired from the main armament of a battle tank," Desmond Travers, former director of the Institute for International Criminal Investigations, told Airwars and AFP. "The calibre appears to be 120 mm, and the shell is fin-stabilised. The maximum effective range is five kilometers, but a skilled tank crew member should be able to hit a target the size of a car." (Airwars)
Analyst Note:
Russian air-delivered cluster bombs, such as this one, are often named using a designation that is a compound of the names of the cargo (carrier) bomb and the submunition it carries. For example, this RBK-500 unguided, air-delivered cluster bomb carries 268 PTAB-1M HEAT submunitions, and is thus designated the 'RBK-500 PTAB-1M'. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
The M-54 ‘high-drag’ series of Soviet/Russian air-delivered bombs can be distinguished by two key identification features: 1.) the ballistic ring located in the forward portion of the bomb (missing in this example); and 2.) the presence of two or four rectangular, longitudinal ‘levelling bars’ (two can be seen in this example). (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Cargo rockets often use an internal frame to manage the correct carriage and expulsion of submunitions. These internal frames frequently survive largely intact after the munition has functioned, and may be diagnostic in identifying a munition by type, series, or model. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
This component is one of four pneumatically controlled canards from the guidance section of a Paveway II precision guided munition (PGM) conversion kit. When a Paveway II conversion kit is fitted to a MK 82 series unguided air-delivered bomb (note markings), the munition receives a GBU-12 series designation. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
The fin assembly in the image bears a strong resemblance to those of other munitions employed in the same incident that have been identified as M49A2 mortar projectiles modified to be delivered by UAV. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Although this munition started out life as a mortar projectile of the M492-pattern, it has been modified to be dropped from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and, in its present state, could not be fired from a conventional mortar. As such, it is correctly classified here as an air-delivered bomb. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
The large fragments in this image are typical of 'natural' fragmentation resulting from the rupturing of a thick-walled munition (in this case, an artillery projectile) by the functioning of its explosive payload. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
In this image, a Ukrainian soldier is using an M1155 Enhanced Portable Inductive Artillery Fuze Setter (EPIAFS) to input the target coordinates and set functioning parameters for an M982 Excalibur guided artillery projectile. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Many guided (or otherwise complex) munitions like this one are marked with additional information on individual assemblies or components. This can include information on sub-contractors that produced or integrated specific parts of a munition. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Once fired, four canards will deploy from the forward (ogival) section of these M982 Excalibur guided artillery projectiles. The narrow-shaped ports through which the canards deploy are a good indicator of a guided or extended-range artillery projectile. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
122 mm ‘Grad’ rockets can be fired from a variety of launchers and even in improvised ways. The most common is the BM-21 launcher and its later derivatives, but many other portable or vehicle-mounted launchers have been used around the world. Craft-produced examples—ranging from simple rails to more complex designs comparable to factory made launchers—are also common. In some cases, Grad rockets are even fired whilst supported by a crude arrangement of logs, bricks, or rocks. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
The Brimstone is a series of British-designed guided missiles that can be launched from air, land, or sea platforms. The United Kingdom first provided Ukraine with the Brimstone I missile in 2022 and exports have continued since, more recently believed to include the Brimstone II model. In Ukraine, Brimstone-series missiles have been exclusively launched from ground-based and sea-based platforms as of May 2024. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Like the more common 9M22S rocket, the 9M28S carries the 9N510 warhead, which dispenses 180 individual incendiary elements composed of a magnesium alloy shell filled with a thermite-like incendiary composition. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
These S-25-O air-to-surface rockets are each loaded into a single-barrelled O-25 rocket launcher (sometimes called a 'launch tube' or 'rocket pod') that is affixed to an aircraft hardpoint. The over-calibre high explosive fragmentation warhead (of 420 mm in diameter) protrudes from the front of the tube. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
This artillery projectile is a non-lethal type designed to carry propaganda leaflets. Externally, it strongly resembles other variants carrying lethal payloads, although this particular model has a distinctive all-red colour. The leaflets are expelled from the base of the munition by the action of a small explosive charge, after a set amount of time has elapsed after firing (determined by the fuze). (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Not all munitions have a lethal purpose. This is a type of ‘carrier’ or ‘cargo’ munition designed to carry and dispense a non-lethal payload—in this case, propaganda leaflets. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Whilst most mortars are smoothbore guns, some have a rifled bore. These M1101 120 mm mortar projectiles feature a 'pre-rifled' driving band—that is, a driving band with grooves cut at the factory to fit the mortar's rifling. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
As a result of the rapid introduction of new models and variants during ongoing conflicts, sometimes a munition is issued with a provisional designation, or with no designation at all. In other cases, the designation is not yet known to researchers. (ARES)
2 Analyst Notes:
The plum-coloured plastic ring at the nose of this mortar projectile (placed over its fuze) and the black plastic propellant cover (placed over its tail) are both fitted for transport and storage, before the projectile is loaded into a cardboard tube, and then packed into an outer crate. The propellant cover obscures the perforated cylindrical tail assembly in this image. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
The various Iranian Qaem-series guided air-delivered bombs can be difficult to differentiate from one another. In this case, the wing (forward fin) assembly distinguishes this Qaem-5 from the visually similar Qaem-1. Note also that the name 'Qaem' has applied by Iran to other, unrelated munitions. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
This image depicts a Ukrainian-made version of the Soviet-era OF-25 152 mm artillery projectile, the designation of which is not publicly known at this time (May 2024). The yellow base colour was commonly found in batches produced by Ukroboronprom in late 2022. Later batches returned to a grey base colour. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
The “+” marking is a weight classification symbol which indicates standard deviation. One “+” sign indicates a deviation from 0.33% to 1.00% of the stated weight. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
The OF-NMR is a rocket-assisted mortar projectile, which uses a solid-fuel rocket motor located in the cylindrical portion of the body, below the ogive, to extend its range. Rocket-assisted mortar projectiles are rarely encountered. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
The 120 mm 3-Z-2 incendiary mortar projectile contains 6 incendiary elements, four large and two small. These are hollow steel ‘cups’ filled with an incendiary mixture of an unknown type, but understood to be comparable in effect to thermite. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Whereas many cartridges are of the 'fixed' type—with the propellant charge contained entirely within the cartridge, and the cartridge case crimped around the projectile—the OF-540 artillery gun projectile is a type of 'semi-fixed' ammunition. A round of semi-fixed ammunition is separated into two groups of components: the projectile and fuze; and the cartridge case, primer, and one or more propellant charges. These two component groups are typically combined at the time of loading the gun, or shortly beforehand. The majority of ammunition fired by artillery systems is either semi-fixed or 'separate loading' (see Glossary). (ARES)
Analyst Note:
In the Ukraine conflict, several groups have offered a service whereby financial supporters can have a message of their choice marked on a munition. Such messages are often references to memes or popular media. The middle artillery projectile shown here is marked with “omae wa mou shindeiru”—an English transliteration of the Japanese phrase お前はもう死んでいる (“you are already dead”), which appears in the popular Fist of the North Star manga and anime series. (ARES)