Do not approach munitions
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Country or territory where the image was reported

Location (8)

Year the image is reported to have been taken

Year (11)

Classification groups of key explosive munitions used in conflicts

Munition Category (5)

Two closely related types of powered munitions, typically long and thin
Rocket or Missile
The impact or effect the munition is intended to have

Functional use (7)

The specific model of munition pictured

Tentative Model (99)


The external organisation that documented the munition

Research Organisation (3)

Colour of the munition pictured

Base Colour (10)

Colour of all, or some, of the markings on the munition

Marking Colour (8)

Language or script of the marking on a munition

Marking Script (8)

Condition of the munition pictured

Condition (6)

Key features defining the operation mechanisms of a projectile

Mechanical Feature (9)

Whether a munition is guided or unguided

Guidance (2)

Where the munition is launched from and what it targets

Domain (4)

The type of fins visible on the munition

Fins Characteristic (5)

The nominal diameter of a projectile. For most modern munitions, this is expressed in millimetres (e.g. 82 mm mortar projectile), but older artillery gun projectiles may be described in inches.

Calibre (28)

Weight class of the aerial bomb pictured

Weight Class (8)

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Rocket or Missile
Two closely related types of powered munitions which use rocket motors to achieve and maintain their rate of travel. Rockets and missiles are typically relatively long and thin—with lengths ranging from 50 centimetres to 6.5 metres. Rockets are unguided those fitted with guidance systems are usually referred to as missiles. Missiles sometimes use propulsion methods other than rocket motors, such as turbojets. The effective range of rockets varies from as little as one kilometre to more than 40 kilometres, while missiles typically have a longer range — some more than 250 kilometres.
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Analyst Note:
This image depicts either a 9M27K or 9M27K1 cargo rocket (cluster munition). The 9M27K carries the 9N210 high explosive fragmentation (HE-FRAG) submunition, whilst the 9M27K1 carries the 9N235 HE-FRAG submunition.
Analyst Note:
107mm spin-stabilized rockets of this design are often utilized by non-state actors in an indirect fire role. Like the original Chinese models that they are copied from, they do not require more than a simple electric power source and a rudimentary launch platform to achieve an acceptable level of accuracy. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Cargo rockets often use an internal frame to manage the correct carriage and expulsion of submunitions. These internal frames frequently survive largely intact after the munition has functioned, and may be diagnostic in identifying a munition by type, series, or model. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
Like the more common 9M22S rocket, the 9M28S carries the 9N510 warhead, which dispenses 180 individual incendiary elements composed of a magnesium alloy shell filled with a thermite-like incendiary composition. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
The Brimstone is a series of British-designed guided missiles that can be launched from air, land, or sea platforms. The United Kingdom first provided Ukraine with the Brimstone I missile in 2022 and exports have continued since, more recently believed to include the Brimstone II model. In Ukraine, Brimstone-series missiles have been exclusively launched from ground-based and sea-based platforms as of May 2024. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
122 mm ‘Grad’ rockets can be fired from a variety of launchers and even in improvised ways. The most common is the BM-21 launcher and its later derivatives, but many other portable or vehicle-mounted launchers have been used around the world. Craft-produced examples—ranging from simple rails to more complex designs comparable to factory made launchers—are also common. In some cases, Grad rockets are even fired whilst supported by a crude arrangement of logs, bricks, or rocks. (ARES)
Analyst Note:
These S-25-O air-to-surface rockets are each loaded into a single-barrelled O-25 rocket launcher (sometimes called a 'launch tube' or 'rocket pod') that is affixed to an aircraft hardpoint. The over-calibre high explosive fragmentation warhead (of 420 mm in diameter) protrudes from the front of the tube. (ARES)